Category Archives: Antioxidants

4 Reasons Vitamin C is Great for Skin Care 

vitamin c supplement

It’s no secret that our bodies need Vitamin C. It supports healthy immunity, prevents scurvy, and helps us feel good from day to day. But did you know that Vitamin C is also great for your skin? Here are four of the many reasons you should add Vitamin C to your skin care routine.

What is Glutathione (GSH)?

GSHBanner

If you’re reading this, odds are you have seen the term “Glutathione” (GSH) before. But how much do you know about this powerful antioxidant? Do you know that it has been touted as the “next big antioxidant” or “the master defender” by health professionals world wide? If not, listen up.

Glutathione offers countless benefits related to joints, eyes, the brain and lungs. Yet, market research suggests that fewer than 6% of consumers are familiar with it. How could this be?

GSH is the most prevalent antioxidant produced by the human body. Healthy cells actually produce Glutathione. When cells run out of GSH, they die! GSH production naturally declines with age. So, supplementation of this vital antioxidant is paramount.

Glutathione

  • Helps protect cells from the damage caused by harmful free radicals
  • Promotes detoxification and optimal cellular health
  • Supports a healthy liver and immune system

Glutathione deficiencies have been linked to many chronic, difficult to treat illnesses. (Here is your chance to start that online search we mentioned earlier!). In addition to its powerful effects inside the body, Glutathione has been used for decades all over the world to improve skin clarity, tone and texture.

A study published in the European Journal of Nutrition revealed that daily supplementation of Setria® Glutathione – the form of L-Glutathione used in Lypo-Spheric™ Glutathione – is effective at increasing body stores of Glutathione by 30-35% over a 6 month period.

It’s probably time for you to give Gluathione a try. With our 100% money back guarantee, what have you got to lose?

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Important Role of Vitamin C

Important Roles of Vitamin C

Many people assume Vitamin C is only required in tiny amounts; just enough to prevent scurvy. After all, this Vitamin C-deficiency disease spawned the chemical name ascorbate for Vitamin C. Ascorbate literally means “against scurvy.” Were this its only function, tiny amounts of Vitamin C would be sufficient for most people on the planet. But, there’s vastly more it can do.

Vitamin C is required in many essential metabolic processes – two of which we have highlighted below: Collagen Synthesis and Calcium Incorporation.

Collagen Synthesis

Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis and maintenance of collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body. Collagen comprises about 25% to 35% of the total protein content in the body. Its strong, connective, elongated fibrils are found in skin, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, the intestines, and the discs between spinal vertebrae. It is also found in the cornea and in muscle tissue.

  • Vitamin C helps protect the skin by promoting the production and migration of fibroblasts that support normal wound healing.
  • VitaminC protects against skin wrinkles seen in premature aging.
  • Increased VitaminC uptake by vascular smooth muscle cells increases the synthesis and maturation of Type I (aka Type 1) collagen.  Type I collagen accounts for about 90% of the body’s total collagen content.
  • High concentrations of VitaminC stimulate synthesis of Type IV collagen, which has important filtration characteristics in the kidney, the blood-brain barrier, and the arterial lining .

Promotes Calcium Incorporation into Bone Tissue

The formation and maintenance of quality, high-density bone material requires Vitamin C. Vitamin C promotes assimilation of calcium into the bone, protects against leaching of calcium out of the bones, and fights the oxidative stress that works against assimilation.

  • Vitamin C stimulates the formation of the cells that incorporate calcium into bone tissue (osteoblasts).
  • VitaminC inhibits the development of cells that dissolve calcium out of bone tissues (osteoclasts).
  • As a powerful antioxidant, VitaminC fights oxidative stress in bone tissues.
  • Collagen cross-linking, required to form the dense matrix for optimal bone strength, requires Vitamin C.

Vitamin C is essential to numerous functions inside the body. We’ve just outlined two more reasons to get your daily dose!

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

17 Ways Vitamin C Supports a Healthy Immune System

The power of vitamin C is often attributed to its role as an antioxidant. However, no other antioxidant can perform the many additional physiological and biological roles that vitamin C fills. To think of vitamin C as nothing more than an antioxidant would be a great understatement.

Among its many positive effects on the body, vitamin C is a strong supporter of healthy immune function. Here’s how:

  1. Vitamin C supports the production of interferons. Interferons are produced when the presence of pathogens is detected. They facilitate the ability of cells to launch protective cellular defenses.*

  2. Vitamin C enhances the function of phagocytes. Phagocytes are a type of white blood cell that envelop pathogens and other dangerous particles. Once the invaders are captured in this manner, they are enzymatically digested.*

  3. Vitamin C supports the cell-mediated immune response. There are 2 major ways that the body can respond to a pathogen: antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity. Cell-mediated response refers to the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells, and antigen-specific T-lymphocytes that attack anything perceived as a foreign agent.*

  4. Vitamin C neutralizes oxidative stress.*

  5. Vitamin C improves and enhances the immune response achieved with vaccination.*

  6. Vitamin C enhances cytokine production by white blood cells. Cytokines are communication proteins released by certain white blood cells that transmit information to other cells, promoting the immune response.*

  7. Vitamin C inhibits various forms of T-lymphocyte death. T-lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. They are an integral part of the cell-mediated immune defense system. Vitamin C helps to keep these important cells alive and viable.*

  8. Vitamin C enhances nitric oxide production by phagocytes. Phagocytes, as discussed in #2, are white blood cells that engulf invading microorganisms. Nitric oxide is produced in large amounts in these cells, and it is one of the agents that will kill captured pathogens.*

  9. Vitamin C enhances T-lymphocyte production. As mentioned in #7, these cells are essential to cell-mediated immune responses, and Vitamin C helps them to multiply in number.*

  10. Vitamin C enhances B-lymphocyte production. These white blood cells make antibodies as part of the antibody-mediated immune response. Antibodies are formed in reaction to the initial introduction of an invading pathogen or antigen.*

  11. Vitamin C inhibits neuraminidase production. Some pathogenic viruses and bacteria create neuraminidase, an enzyme that keeps them from being trapped in mucus, one of the body’s natural lines of defense. Inhibiting neuraminidase helps the body optimize this defensive mechanism.*

  12. Vitamin C supports antibody production and activity. Good antibody function is important to a healthy immune system.*

  13. Vitamin C supports natural killer cell activity. Natural killer cells are lymphocytes that can directly attack cells, like tumor cells, and kill them.*

  14. Vitamin C supports localized generation and interaction with hydrogen peroxide. Vitamin C and hydrogen peroxide can kill microorganisms and can dissolve the protective capsules of some bacteria, such as pneumococci. *

  15. Vitamin C enhances cyclic GMP levels in lymphocytes. Cyclic GMP plays a central role in the regulation of many physiologic responses, including the modulation of immune responses. Cyclic GMP is important for normal cell proliferation and differentiation. It also controls the action of many hormones, and it appears to mediate the relaxation of smooth muscle.*

  16. Vitamin C detoxifies histamine. This effect is important in the support of local immune factors.*

  17. Vitamin C enhances the mucolytic effect. This property helps liquefy thick secretions, increasing immune access to infection.*

  18. Vitamin C makes bacterial membranes more permeable to some antibiotics. *

  19. Vitamin C enhances prostaglandin formation. Prostaglandins are hormone-like compounds that control many physiologic processes, including regulating T-lymphocyte function.*

  20. Vitamin C concentrates in white blood cells. Some of the primary cells in the immune system concentrate Vitamin C as much as 80 times higher than the level in plasma. This assures extra delivery of Vitamin C to the sites of infection by the migration of these Vitamin C-rich white blood cells.*

References
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[2] Siegel B, “Enhancement of interferon production by poly(rI)-poly(rC) in mouse cell cultures by ascorbic acid” Nature 1975 254(5500):531-532.
[3] Geber W, Lefkowitz S, Hung C, “Effect of ascorbic acid, sodium salicylate, and caffeine on the serum interferon level in response to viral infection” Pharmacology 1975 13(3):228-233.
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[16] Dallegri F, Lanzi G, Patrone F, “Effects of ascorbic acid on neutrophil locomotion” International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 1980 61(1):40-45.
[17] Corberand J, et al, “Malignant external otitis and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration impairment. Improvement with ascorbic acid” Archives of Otolaryngology 1982 108(2):122-124.
[18] Patrone F, et al, “Effects of ascorbic acid on neutrophil function. Studies on normal and chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils” Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 1982 4(1-2):163-168.
Cunningham-Rundles S, “Effects of nutritional status on immunological function” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982 35(5 Suppl):1202-1210.
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[20] Levy R, Schlaeffer F, “Successful treatment of a patient with recurrent furunculosis by vitamin C: improvement of clinical course and of impaired neutrophil functions” International Journal of Dermatology 1993 32(11):832-834.
[21] Levy R, et al, “Vitamin C for the treatment of recurrent furunculosis in patients with impaired neutrophil functions” The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1996 173(6):1502-1505.
[22] Ciocoiu M, et al, “The involvement of vitamins C and E in changing the immune response” [Article in Romanian] Revista Medico-Chirurgicala a Societatii de Medici si Naturalisti din Iasi 1998 102(1-2):93-96.
De la Fuente M, et al, “Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1998 76(4):373-380.
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[24] Thomas W, Holt P, “Vitamin C and immunity: an assessment of the evidence” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 1978 32(2):370-379.
[25] Evans R, Currie L, Campbell A, “The distribution of ascorbic acid between various cellular components of blood, in normal individuals, and its relation to the plasma concentration” The British Journal of Nutrition 1982 47(3):473-482.
[26] Goldschmidt M, “Reduced bactericidal activity in neutrophils from scorbutic animals and the effect of ascorbic acid on these target bacteria in vivo and in vitro” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991 54(6 Suppl):1214S-1220S.
[27] Washko P, Wang Y, Levine M, “Ascorbic acid recycling in human neutrophils” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1993 268(21):15531-15535.
[28] Siegel B, Morton J, “Vitamin C and the immune response” Experientia 1977 33(3):393-395.
Jeng K, et al, “Supplementation with vitamins C and E enhances cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy adults” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996 64(6):960-965.
Campbell J, et al, “Ascorbic acid is a potent inhibitor of various forms of T cell apoptosis” Cellular Immunology 1999 194(1):1-5.
[29] Mizutani A, et al, “Ascorbate-dependent enhancement of nitric oxide formation in activated macrophages. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry 1998 2(4):235-241.
[30] Mizutani A. Tsukagoshi N, “Molecular role of ascorbate in enhancement of NO production in activated macrophage-like cell line, J774.1” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 1999 45(4):423-435.
[31] Fraser R, et al, “The effect of variations in vitamin C intake on the cellular immune response of guinea pigs” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1980 33(4):839-847.
Kennes B, et al, “Effect of vitamin C supplements on cell-mediated immunity in old people” Gerontology 1983 29(5):305-310.
[32] Wu C, Dorairajan T, Lin T, “Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the immune response of chickens vaccinated and challenged with infectious bursal disease virus” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2000 74(1-2):145-152.
[33] Schwager J, Schulze J, “Influence of ascorbic acid on the response to mitogens and interleukin production of porcine lymphocytes” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1997 67(1):10-16.
[34] Rotman D, “Sialoresponsin and an antiviral action of ascorbic acid” Medical Hypotheses 1978 4(1):40-43.
[35] Ecker E, Pillemer L, “Vitamin C requirement of the guinea pig” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1940 44:262.
[36] Bourne G, “Vitamin C and immunity” The British Journal of Nutrition 1949 2:342.
Prinz W, et al, “The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on some parameters of the human immunological defence system” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1977 47(3):248-257.
[37] Vallance S, “Relationships between ascorbic acid and serum proteins of the immune system” British Medical Journal 1977 2(6084):437-438.
[38] Sakamoto M, et al, “The effect of vitamin C deficiency on complement systems and complement components” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 1981 27(4):367-378.
Feigen G, et al, “Enhancement of antibody production and protection against systemic anaphylaxis by large doses of vitamin C” Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 1982 38(2):313-333.
[39] Li Y, Lovell T, “Elevated levels of dietary ascorbic acid increase immune responses in channel catfish” The Journal of Nutrition 1985 115(1):123-131.
[40] Wahli T, Meier W, Pfister K, “Ascorbic acid induced immune-mediated decrease in mortality in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infected rainbow-trout (Salmo gairdneri)” Acta Tropica 1986 43(3):287-289.
[41] Johnston C, Kolb W, Haskell B, “The effect of vitamin C nutriture on complement component C1q concentrations in guinea pig plasma” The Journal of Nutrition 1987 117(4):764-768.
[42] Haskell B, Johnston C, “Complement component C1q activity and ascorbic acid nutriture in guinea pigs” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991 54(6 Suppl):1228S-1230S.
[43] Wu C, Dorairajan T, Lin T, “Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the immune response of chickens vaccinated and challenged with infectious bursal disease virus” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2000 74(1-2):145-152.
[44] Heuser G, Vojdani A, “Enhancement of natural killer cell activity and T and B cell function by buffered vitamin C in patients exposed to toxic chemicals: the role of protein kinase-C” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 1997 19(3):291-312.
[45] Horrobin D, et al, “The nutritional regulation of T lymphocyte function” Medical Hypotheses 1979 5(9):969-985.
[46] Scott J, “On the biochemical similarities of ascorbic acid and interferon” Journal of Theoretical Biology 1982 98(2):235-238.
[47] Siegel B, Morton J, “Vitamin C and immunity: influence of ascorbate on prostaglandin E2 synthesis and implications for natural killer cell activity” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1984 54(4):339-342.
[48] Atkinson J, et al, “Effects of ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in human lymphocytes” Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research 1979 5(2):107-123.
[49] Panush R, et al, “Modulation of certain immunologic responses by vitamin C. III. Potentiation of in Vitro and in vivo lymphocyte responses” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Supplement 1982 23:35-47.
[50] Strangeways W, “Observations on the trypanocidal action in vitro of solutions of glutathione and ascorbic acid” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1937 31:405-416.
[51] Miller T, “Killing and lysis of gram-negative bacteria through the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, and lysozyme” Journal of Bacteriology 1969 98(3):949-955.
[52] Tappel A, “Lipid peroxidation damage to cell components” Federation Proceedings 1973 32(8):1870-1874.
[53] Kraut E, Metz E, Sagone A, “In vitro effects of ascorbate on white cell metabolism and the chemiluminescence response” Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society 1980 27(4):359-366.
[54] Robertson W, Ropes M, Bauer W, “The degradation of mucins and polysaccharides by ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide” The Biochemical Journal 1941 35:903.
[55] Nandi B, et al, “Effect of ascorbic acid on detoxification of histamine under stress conditions” Biochemical Pharmacology 1974 23(3):643-647.
[56] Johnston C, Martin L, Cai X, “Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1992 11(2):172-176.
[57] Kastenbauer S, et al, “Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans” Neurology 2002 58(2):186-191.
[58] Versteeg J, “Investigations on the effect of ascorbic acid on antibody production in rabbits after injection of bacterial and viral antigens by different routes. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C” Biological and Medical Sciences 1970 73(5):494-501.
[59] Banic S, “Immunostimulation by vitamin C” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Supplement 1982 23:49-52.
[60] Wu C, Dorairajan T, Lin T, “Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the immune response of chickens vaccinated and challenged with infectious bursal disease virus” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2000 74(1-2):145-152.
[61] Ericsson Y, “The effect of ascorbic acid oxidation on mucoids and bacteria in body secretions” Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 1954 35:573-583.
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©2014 LivOn Labs. Content adapted from Primal Panacea by Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD.

More Insulin = More Fat

insulin and fat

You know those who claim to have been blessed with a “fast” metabolism? Yes, they bug us, too….. It seems some have innate systems that allow them to process sugars, starches, fats and calories more efficiently. With the holiday season upon us, an efficient calorie and fat burning system is on many of our wish lists.

What you may not know is that your entire metabolic system may not be to blame for that layer of fat you can’t seem to banish – the culprit may be insulin sensitivity.

<div class=”callout”>Insulin is a hormone that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.</div>

Whenever you eat carbohydrates or protein, the level of sugar in your blood increases. In healthy individuals, insulin is released from the pancreas to remove the excess sugar from the blood, which otherwise would be toxic. This sugar is then used for energy. If your body is not responding properly to the insulin (poor insulin sensitivity), it begins to over-produce insulin in order to keep blood sugar levels in check. This can be the thing standing between you and your fat loss goals, because insulin has a powerful ability to prevent the breakdown of fat.

More Insulin Equals More Fat

What can you do to improve your insulin sensitivity? Fitness professionals have relied on one particular supplement for years. Some would say it’s one of the best kept secrets to weight management…. R-Alpha Lipoic Acid (or R-ALA).

Multiple placebo controlled studies have shown that daily doses of 600 mg to 1800 mg of ALA can improve insulin sensitivity and the utilization of glucose, ultimately leading to healthy blood sugar levels.

ALA may also go a step further and help prevent the complications that are associated with unhealthy blood sugar levels, specifically complications in the vascular system and kidneys. Recent research indicates this reduced threat of complication comes from ALA’s ability to protect the inner lining of blood vessels (the endothelium) from damage caused by oxidative stress.

It’s important to note that all R-ALA supplements are not created equal. Research shows that R -Alpha Lipoic Acid is a more biologically active form of ALA that offers greater antioxidant and neuroprotective benefits at substantially lower doses than the “S” form of alpha lipoic acid that is more commonly available. The body has a strong preference for natural R-ALA. Be sure to look for this when comparing supplements. Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA uses the more bioavailable, “R” form of alpha lipoic acid, the form found in nature.

In addition to increasing insulin sensitivity, R-Alpha Lipoic Acid (R-ALA) is one of the body’s most powerful intracellular and extracellular antioxidants. Known as the Universal Antioxidant, R-ALA directly affects the health of nearly every cell in the body, and can even cross the blood-brain barrier. The “R” form of ALA is considered the most bioavailable and biologically active form of ALA in the body. LypriCel™ R-ALA delivers high-quality R-ALA in every packet, neutralizing free radicals in nearly every part of the body.

Give the gift of healthy to nearly every part of the body this holiday season with Lypo-Spheric R-ALA. The heart, brain, eyes and waistline will all thank you for improved insulin sensitivity and reduced damage from free radicals.

Four Key Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid

When you hear the name “Alpha Lipoic Acid,” does it sound familiar, but you don’t quite know what it is?  Well, you’re not alone.  Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) often plays the role of the supporting actress – it’s a highly versatile antioxidant that’s found in nearly everything, yet is largely underappreciated. Although ALA has enjoyed periods of fame, most notably a mention on Dr. Oz earlier this year, it is often upstaged by more popular antioxidants like Vitamin C.

We happen to believe ALA may just be the most important substance you have never heard of, and it’s time to give it the attention it deserves!

To start, you should know that Alpha Lipoic Acid goes by several names and abbreviations, including ALA, Lipoic Acid, LA, Thioctic Acid, Lipoate, and α-lipoic acid.  Although less commonly used, Alpha Lipoic Acid may also be referred to as 6,8-thioctic acid, 6,8-dithioctane acid, 1,2-dithiol-3-valeric acid, and DHLA.

Now, here are four great reasons to know and love Alpha Lipoic Acid:

ALA = Energy

We all need energy, especially cellular energy. Cellular energy is the power behind every single action within the human body, including muscle movement, generation of new cells, wound healing, and even thinking.  You are using valuable cellular energy right now, just by reading this article!

The body’s supply of cellular energy starts in the mitochondria of the cells.  There are thousands of mitochondria in most eukaryotic cells (cells with nuclei) within the body, and they are constantly creating energy through a process known as the Krebs Cycle.  ALA is an important cofactor to two key enzymatic reactions within this Cycle. To put it simply, without ALA, cellular energy is not possible.  And without cellular energy, life is not possible.

ALA and Healthy Blood Sugar Levels

Another important characteristic of ALA is its effect on insulin, and the body’s use of blood sugar (glucose). Multiple placebo controlled studies have shown that daily doses of 600 mg to 1800 mg of ALA can improve insulin sensitivity and the utilization of glucose, ultimately leading to healthy blood sugar levels.

ALA may also go a step further and help prevent the complications that are associated with unhealthy blood sugar levels, specifically complications in the vascular system and kidneys. Recent research indicates this reduced threat of complication comes from ALA’s ability to protect the inner lining of blood vessels (the endothelium) from damage caused by oxidative stress.

ALA is a Key Factor in Optimal Nerve Health

In Germany, ALA has been approved as a treatment for diabetic neuropathy – a debilitating condition that causes painful burning sensations in the arms and legs, and eventually leads to a loss of nerve function.   Although most of the studies related to this treatment have used intravenous (IV) ALA, a placebo controlled study using oral ALA demonstrated that symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, including pain, stinging and burning sensations, were reduced when taking single doses of 600 mg, 1200 mg or 1800 mg per day for 5 weeks.

ALA is an Important Part of Your Weight-Loss Plan

Every year, thousands of different supplements, gym memberships, pharmaceutical drugs, books, and medical treatments are used by people trying to lose weight.  In 2012, the annual revenue of the USA weight-loss industry was an estimated $20 billion. Clearly, managing a healthy weight is an issue many people struggle with.

Alpha Lipoic Acid cannot magically make cheeseburgers as nutritious as carrots, but it does have an effect on how our bodies use food and excess fat.  Recent research showed that overweight individuals who took 1,800 mg ALA every day for 20 weeks lost more weight than subjects who did not take ALA. It all comes down to cellular energy.  By supporting the creation of energy within the cells, ALA can help stimulate the body to use food molecules more quickly and burn excess calories from fat.

Choosing the Right Form of Alpha Lipoic Acid

ALA can be found in oral supplements in two forms: the R form, which is the form found in nature, or the S form. The R form of ALA is more bioavailable and biologically active than S-ALA, but it is expensive to produce and often presents stability issues in manufacturing. This is why many ALA supplements contain only the S form, or a 50/50 mixture of S-ALA and R-ALA (also referred to as racemic ALA).

In most cases, only 50% of the total dose of supplements labeled as Alpha Lipoic Acid or R/S Lipoic Acid is the R form.  Because R-ALA has only recently become available in a stabilized format, most clinical research has been conducted using intravenous or oral mixtures of R/S ALA.  This is important to consider when choosing how much ALA to take.  For example, when clinical evidence suggests 600 mg of racemic ALA per day can help maintain healthy blood sugar levels, this dose would be equivalent to 300 mg of R-ALA.

Liposome encapsulated R-ALA may also offer further benefits to the absorption and utilization of R-ALA in the body.  ALA pills, powders and capsules are rapidly, but incompletely absorbed into the blood, and then quickly used by the body or passed as waste.  With Liposomal Encapsulation Technology, R-ALA is encapsulated and protected from destruction in the digestive system by microscopic liposomes.  Since liposomes are made of phospholipids (the same material that makes up your cellular membrane), they are capable of passing through cell membranes and delivering R-ALA directly into the cell.

 

Sources

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  9. Konrad D. Utilization of the insulin-signaling network in the metabolic actions of alpha-lipoic acid-reduction or oxidation? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005 Jul-Aug;7(7-8):1032-9.
  10. Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, Höflich A, Assadkhani A, Böhles HJ, Sewell A, Tritschler HJ, Cobelli C, Usadel KH. alpha-Lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999 Feb;22(2):280-7.
  11. Konrad D, Somwar R, Sweeney G, Yaworsky K, Hayashi M, Ramlal T, Klip A. The antihyperglycemic drug alpha-lipoic acid stimulates glucose uptake via both GLUT4 translocation and GLUT4 activation: potential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in GLUT4 activation. Diabetes. 2001 Jun;50(6):1464-71.
  12. Kozlov AV, Gille L, Staniek K, Nohl H. Dihydrolipoic acid maintains ubiquinone in the antioxidant active form by two-electron reduction of ubiquinone and one-electron reduction of ubisemiquinone. Arch Biochem Biophys 1999;363:148.
  13. Mijnhout GS, Kollen BJ, Alkhalaf A, Kleefstra N, Alpha lipoic Acid for symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Endocrinol. 2012;2012:456279. doi: 10.1155/2012/456279. Epub 2012 Jan 26.
  14. Mijnhout GS, Alkhalaf A, Kleefstra N, Alpha lipoic acid: a new treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes? Neth J Med. 2010 Apr;68(4):158-62.
  15. Packer L, Kraemer K, Rimbach G. Molecular aspects of lipoic acid in the prevention of diabetes complications. Nutrition. 2001 Oct;17(10):888-95.
  16. Poh ZX, Goh KP. A current update on the use of alpha lipoic acid in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2009 Dec;9(4):392-8.
  17. Ziegler D, Ametov A, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, Gurieva I, Low PA, Munzel U, Yakhno N, Raz I, Novosadova M, Maus J, Samigullin R. Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2365-70.
  18. Ziegler D. Thioctic acid for patients with symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: a critical review. Treat Endocrinol. 2004;3(3):173-89.
  19. Ziegler D, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes. 1997;46 (suppl 2):S62-66.
  20. Ziegler D, Reljanovic M, Mehnert H, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999; 107:421-430.

Can Vitamin C Upset Your Stomach?

upset stomach

Vitamin C is well known for providing many benefits, including shortening the duration of a cold, boosting the immune system and supporting the natural production of collagen.  But yes, taking high doses of traditional vitamin C – pills, powders, and capsules – can upset your stomach and then some…

Here’s why:

Most traditional vitamin C supplements contain straight ascorbic acid.  Ascorbic acid is recognized as the primary force behind the power of vitamin C, but it is an acid.  A moderate amount of acid in the gastric system helps to digest food and kill bacteria, but too much acid leads to heartburn, bloating, belching, and flatulence.

High quality vitamin C supplements use gentler, less-acidic types of vitamin C to help prevent this gastric upset.  These supplements typically include sodium ascorbate, ascorbic acid with bioflavonoids, ascorbyl palmitate, calcium ascorbate, or mineral forms of ascorbate.

The type of vitamin C you take, however, is only one part of the issue.  Because no matter what type of vitamin C you ingest, it’s primarily absorbed through an active transport system (unless it’s encapsulated in liposomes, but we’ll get to that later).

Active transport of vitamin C relies on sodium-dependent vitamin C co-transporters (SVCTs) to carry each vitamin C molecule through special doorways into the bloodstream, cell or tissue.  SVCTs can only carry one molecule of vitamin C through one door at a time.

This system works efficiently for a healthy person taking small doses of vitamin C, but when you take high doses of vitamin C, the absorption is severely restricted by the number of SVCTs and the number of open doors. If there aren’t enough SVCTs to carry all of the vitamin C into the blood, or all of the doors are closed, the vitamin C that was not absorbed is forced to exit the body.

This forced exit occurs because the most common forms of vitamin C are water soluble – meaning the vitamin C dissolves in water, and cannot be stored by the body for later use.  So when a large dose of water soluble vitamin C is taken and there are not enough SVCTs or open doors, all of the unabsorbed vitamin C is sent to the colon. Water is then drawn into the colon in order to dilute and excrete the vitamin C.  Then… straight to the bathroom.

Unless you are looking for a good cleanse, there are two ways to prevent these unpleasant experiences when taking high doses of vitamin C:

  • Take single doses of <500 mg of sodium ascorbate, several times a day.  Sodium ascorbate is recommended most by vitamin C experts, and it is commonly used in high dose intravenous (IV) infusions.
  • Take vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes.  Liposomes are tiny spheres that form a protective membrane around the vitamin C.  This prevents the vitamin C from being destroyed in the digestive system, while promoting delivery directly into the bloodstream and cells.  And because liposomes do not use the body’s active transport system, you can take high doses of liposomal vitamin C without worrying about where to find the nearest bathroom.

References:

  • Li, Y. and Schellhorn, E. 2007. New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C. Journal of Nutrition. 137: 2171-2184
  • Hickey S., Roberts H, Miller N, (2008), “Pharmacokinetics of oral vitamin C” Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine July 31.

© 2014 LivOn Labs

Study Shows Daily Supplementation of Setria® Glutathione Increases Glutathione Levels in the Body

glutathione supplement

A new study published in the European Journal of Nutrition revealed that daily supplementation of Setria® Glutathione – the form of L-Glutathione used in Lypo-Spheric™ GSH – is effective at increasing body stores of glutathione by 30-35% over a 6 month period.

The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at Penn State University School of Medicine and lead by Dr. John P. Richie, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Public Health Sciences and Pharmacology. Dr. Richie has studied glutathione for more than 25 years, focusing primarily on glutathione’s ability to fight oxidative stress.

“It is well-known in the science community that glutathione is one of the primary protective molecules in the body; however, whether or not glutathione levels could be supplemented by oral glutathione administration has been hotly debated and clinical data has been lacking,” said Dr. Richie. “Now we have evidence to illustrate the potential benefit of glutathione supplementation …”

The study measured the effect of supplementation with Setria® Glutathione on glutathione levels in 54 healthy adults, 28-72 years of age. One group of subjects took 250 mg/day (low-dose), the second group took 1,000 mg/day (high-dose), and the third group took 470 mg/day of placebo. Glutathione levels were measured over a six month period in different blood components, including erythrocytes (red blood cells) and lymphocytes (white blood cells), as well as the buccal mucosal cells that line the inside of the cheeks.

Results of the study showed glutathione levels in the blood increased after one, three and six months when compared to baseline levels at both doses.And at six months, average glutathione levels increased 30-35% in erythrocytes, plasma, and lymphocytes, and 260% in buccal cells in the high-dose group.

In addition to the increase in glutathione levels, the study showed that daily supplementation of 1,000 mg/day enhanced the function of natural killer (NK) cells more than two fold after three months. NK cells are vital to a well-functioning immune system because they can rapidly identify and kill abnormal cells. This two fold increase in NK cytotoxicity means the NK cells were two times as effective at killing abnormal cells, such as cells that are virally infected or tumorigenic.

A secondary endpoint analysis of the data also indicated that daily supplementation of 250 mg – 1,000 mg of Setria® Glutathione may result in a significant decrease in oxidative stress after 6 months. While the majority of glutathione in cells is in the reduced form (the “active” form), it becomes oxidized when it is used to neutralize free radicals and other toxins that cause oxidative stress.  So as oxidative stress increases, the level of oxidized glutathione in the body increases, and the level of reduced glutathione in the body decreases. Therefore, a reduction in oxidative stress was demonstrated with a decrease in the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione.

Why is all of this data important?

Glutathione is often called the “Master Defender” due to its vast functions as an antioxidant, detoxifier and immune system supporter. It is found in nearly all cells, tissues and organ systems in the body. Our bodies produce glutathione naturally, but everyday factors including the intake of medication, ill health, exposure to environmental toxins, aging and diet dramatically reduce the body’s stores of glutathione. As glutathione levels decrease, a detrimental drop occurs in the cellular functions that help maintain a healthy heart, brain, eyes, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and joints.

Previously, the only reliable way to boost glutathione levels was with IV infusions. With Setria® Glutathione and the superior bioavailability offered by liposome-encapsulation, this is no longer the case. Orally-ingested Lypo-Spheric™ GSH combines Setria® Glutathione with Liposomal Encapsulation Technology to protect the glutathione from being destroyed in the digestive system, making Lypo-Spheric™ GSH an efficient and cost-effective way to boost glutathione levels.

References

  • Richie JP Jr, Nichenametla S, Neidig W, Calcagnotto A, Haley JS, Schell TD, Muscat JE. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione. Eur J Nutr. 2014 May 5. PubMed PMID: 24791752.
  • Suntres ZE. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage. Journal of Toxicology 2011 May 24. Article ID 152474.
  • Topham NJ, Hewitt, EW. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity: how do they pull the trigger? Immunology. 2009 Sep. PubMed PMCID: 2747134.

Setria® is a registered trademark of Kyowa Hakko USA, Inc.

© 2014 LivOn Labs

The newest addition to LivOn Labs, Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA

alpha lipoic acid benefits

WHY YOU NEED LYPO-SPHERIC™ R-ALA

Along with experts like Burt Berkson, MD, PhD and Lester Packer, PhD, we believe R-Alpha Lipoic Acid (R-ALA) may be the most important antioxidant ever discovered.

R-ALA directly affects the health of nearly every cell in the body, and can even cross the blood-brain barrier. This means R-ALA can neutralize free radicals in nearly every part of the body.

Reducing the damage caused by free radicals is the key to aging gracefully, and maintaining the health of your heart, brain, eyes, and every other organ in the body.

Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA

  • Promotes, maintains and supports cellular energy production*
  • Recycles other vital antioxidants, including vitamin C and vitamin E
  • Helps maintain optimal nerve health*
  • Helps maintain healthy glucose levels*
  • Promotes healthy insulin sensitivity*
  • Supports weight-loss when combined with a low calorie diet*

Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA uses the more bioavailable, “R” form of alpha lipoic acid, the form found in nature. Research shows that R -Alpha Lipoic Acid is a more biologically active form of ALA that offers greater antioxidant and neuroprotective benefits at substantially lower doses than the “S” form of lipoic acid that is more commonly available.* The body has a strong preference for natural R-ALA.

Use Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA in combination with Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C and GSH (Glutathione), and you get an antioxidant powerhouse delivered directly to your cells.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

What are some of the benefits of B Complex Vitamins?

B complex vitamins are an important group of water-soluble vitamins that support cell metabolism and other vital body functions, including the nervous system, the digestion and the production of red blood cells. Vitamin B complex includes all the water-soluble vitamins except vitamin C. Various other vitamins and nutritional components are often included as part of a B-complex vitamin supplement. A multivitamin containing B complex is a highly recommended supplement to maintain overall health.

The B Vitamins

Discovery of the B vitamins and their importance to health has led to major breakthroughs in healthcare. Among the historic importance of Vitamin B complex is the role of B vitamins in preventing birth defects. B vitamins are also necessary for optimal nervous functions, food metabolism, and healthy hair, nails and skin. Vitamin B complex is vital for most essential body functions, down to the cellular level.

Healthy Pregnancy

Spinal bifida and anencephaly are birth defects in which the fetal nervous system does not develop properly. A deficiency of folic acid (vitamin B9) in the mother was found to be related to the occurrence of these defects. Since that discovery, the USDA has required folic acid to be added to most enriched breads and other grain products. Today, the incidence of folic acid deficiency and of these birth defects has dropped dramatically.

Healthy Blood Sugar Levels

People with blood sugar imbalances are often found to be deficient in thiamine (vitamin B1). Thiamine is important for the metabolism of carbohydrates, and may help regulate blood sugar levels in the body. Benfotiamine – a fat soluble derivative of Thiamine – is especially helpful in protecting the body against high blood sugar levels.

Healthy Hair, Skin and Nails

Vitamins B5 and B6 have been shown to aid memory and concentration by reducing high levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is a substance that is normally converted to protein, and its accumulation in the blood is toxic to healthy brain function. Vitamin B-complex is often used to help prevent anxiety, depression and cognitive decline because B vitamins aid in normal hormonal functioning.

Nervous System Functions

Vitamins B5 and B6 have been shown to aid memory and concentration by reducing high levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is a substance that is normally converted to protein, and its accumulation in the blood is toxic to healthy brain function. Vitamin B-complex is often used to help prevent anxiety, depression and cognitive decline because B vitamins aid in normal hormonal functioning.

Digestive System

Vitamin B-complex is essential to proper digestion. Deficiency of vitamins B1, B6 and B7 (Biotin) can impair absorption of nutrients. Vitamin B6 in particular has been shown to promote vitamin absorption in the digestive system. The body produces energy from food through cell metabolism, and even a moderate deficiency of vitamins B1, B6 and B7 impairs energy production and can result in fatigue, irritability and weakness.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Because of the role that vitamin B-complex plays in hormonal functioning, the tension produced by hormonal fluctuations in women’s regular cycles can be helped by supplementation of B vitamins.

Heart Disease

As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Folic Acid, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. However, the FDA evaluated this claim and found that, while it is known that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol reduce the risk of heart disease and other vascular diseases, the evidence in support of the claim is inconclusive.

B Complex Vitamins and Nutrition

A diet rich in whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables will supply a healthy amount of B vitamins. Vitamin B12 is the only B vitamin that is not available from plants.

Good sources for B vitamins include whole grains, potatoes, bananas, beans and lentils, chili peppers and molasses. Fermented foods, including tempeh and dark beer, are also rich in B vitamins. Yeast, both nutritional yeast and brewer’s yeast, is high in B vitamins. Turkey, tuna and liver are among the animal proteins high in B vitamins.

  • Lentils and legumes, dark green vegetables, eggs, fish and poultry are high in Vitamin B1.
  • Green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits and dairy products are good sources of Vitamin B2.
  • Salmon, tuna and white-meat chicken are high in vitamin B3. So are beans and lentils.
  • Look to mushrooms, broccoli, yogurt, avocados and legumes for vitamin B5.
  • Vitamin B6 is found in high concentration in animal protein and dairy products.
  • Vitamin B7 is found in a wide range of foods. Eat a well-balanced diet to obtain this vitamin. Vitamin B7 deficiency is rare.
  • Folic acid is naturally available in green leafy vegetables, other fruits and vegetables and dried beans.
  • Vitamin B12 is available from animal and dairy products.

B Vitamin Supplements

Vitamin supplements are not a replacement for a well-balanced diet, but rather a way to ensure that all vitamin needs are being met.  The best way to get your B vitamins is through a carefully balanced diet and a complete Vitamin B-complex supplement.