Category Archives: Liposomal Technology

Researchers Claim RDA For Vitamin C is Flawed

The controversy over vitamin C and orthomolecular medicine began with the publication of Linus Pauling’s book, “Vitamin C and the Common Cold”. A quarter of a century later the controversy around vitamin C continues.

Steve Hickey, PhD and Hillary Roberts, Phd, pharmacology professors and graduates of the University of Manchester in Britain, are challenging the established Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C, which is 75 and 90 milligrams for males and females respectively. In their book “Ascorbate, The Science of Vitamin C”, Hickey and Roberts point out some biological flaws to justify their attack on the RDA for vitamin C. The rapid elimination of vitamin C was demonstrated graphically; however, the Institute of Medicine (IM) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) did not account for the half-life of vitamin C. This flawed approach is one of the main contentions that Drs. Hickey and Roberts maintain.

Half Life of Vitamin C

The half life of any substance is the time it takes for half of the substance to be removed from the body. Vitamin C’s half life is quite short, about 30 minutes in blood plasma, a fact that the IM and NIH failed to recognize. NIH researchers established the RDA for vitamin C by conducting a test 12 hours or 24 half life’s after consumption. Due to the short half life of vitamin C, many studies make the conclusion that high-dose supplemental vitamin C is ineffective. Drs. Hickey and Roberts state that due to its rapid deterioration, a very high dose of vitamin C would not achieve the same concentration in the blood serum over time as several administered doses.

Drs. Hickey and Roberts decided to perform an experiment to measure the blood plasma levels of liposomal vitamin C, which was published in the Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. It was titled Pharmacokinetics of oral vitamin C. Their results indicate that, following oral intakes, high blood plasma levels can be achieved with liposomal vitamin C formulations. The results suggest that such levels (400microM/L or above) could be sustained indefinitely with repeated dosing at short intervals (say 5-grams every 4-hours).

RDA for Vitamin C

In the past, Drs. Hickey and Roberts have shaken the foundation and confidence of the IM and NIH for failing to investigate the use of high-dose vitamin C properly. They have repeatedly challenged the RDA for vitamin C on studies using only 15 healthy subjects and single dosages. They also contend that the RDA is intended to set a level of nutrient consumption that would prevent disease, specifically Scurvy, among the vast majority of the population. However their research shows that 35% of the population is in need of more than the RDA including:

  • Smokers ( 50 million)
  • Estrogen and Birth Control Pill Users (13 and 18 million)
  • Diabetics (16 million)
  • Pregnant females (4 million)
  • and even people taking aspirin

Contradictory Data

Drs. Hickey and Roberts confronted the IM and NIH with their own data however they claim the saturation point is reached at a certain concentration of ascorbic acid in blood plasma. They later published a paper in early 2004  showing they had achieved three times greater concentration of vitamin C in the blood circulation than previously thought possible using high-dose vitamin C [Annals Internal Medicine, April 6, 140: 533-37,2004]. A similar published German study also confirms vitamin C supplements can elevate vitamin C concentrations beyond what NIH scientists said was possible. [Archives Biochemistry Biophysics, March 423: 109-15, 2004]. NIH researchers continue to maintain that no more than 200 milligrams of oral vitamin C is required for human health and that a diet which includes the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables would provide adequate vitamin C. But only 9 percent of the US population consumes 5 servings of plant foods daily. The National Cancer Institute has abandoned their 5-a-day recommendation in favor of a 9-a-day servings of fruits and vegetables once they realized five servings did not provide the proper dietary intake of vitamin C and other essential vitamins in the prevention of cancer or heart disease.

Hickey has called for the IM and NIH to retract the current RDA or provide scientific justification for their recommendation.

What do you think? Is the RDA for vitamin C adequate?

For more on the RDA for vitamin C, check out our article about the RDA for Guinea Pigs.

Identifying High-Quality Liposomal Supplements

We have spent years researching the best formulation techniques and manufacturing processes for liposome encapsulated supplements. As part of this research, we analyze every liposomal supplement we come across.  This is what we’ve learned so far…

Liposomal Supplements Must Use Phospholipids Suitable for Making Liposomes.

In order to make strong, stable liposomes that can encapsulate nutrients and not “break apart” too easily, it is important to use Phospholipids from highly refined sources that have a natural mix of phospholipids, including a high percentage of Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE).

Some products are made with low-quality soy lecithin, which does not have the proper percentage of PC or PE to make liposomes.  This type of lecithin is typically used as a food additive, and should not be used in liposomal supplements.

We have always found that Phospholipids extracted from non-GMO soy lecithin work the best for high-quality, affordable liposomal supplements.  While a very high intake of unrefined soy ingested as food may contain tiny amounts of undesirable substances, the intake of highly refined and purified phospholipids derived from soy lecithin does not pose such a risk. In fact, we have not found any evidence of anyone being harmed by the regular intake of phospholipids extracted from non-GMO soy lecithin.

 Liposomal Supplements Must Have at Least an Equal Ratio of Phospholipids to Key Nutrients.

We have analyzed many commercial and homemade products, and found that most of them are of poor quality. Some are merely emulsions.  This means the nutrients are simply mixed with a small amount of low quality phospholipids or lecithin, and there are very few liposomes, if any at all.

One indicator of an emulsion is the amount of phospholipids or lecithin in the product.  For proper liposome encapsulation, you must have at least an equal amount of phospholipids and nutrients.  If the phospholipids or lecithin are listed as “Other Ingredients”, it is very likely there is not enough material to create any liposomes, even if the production process is otherwise appropriate.

Some companies choose to make emulsions and call them “Liposomal Supplements” because they are easy and inexpensive to produce.   Whether they believe they have products that are legitimately encapsulated in liposomes is unknown.

If you take an emulsion that contains lecithin and a nutrient like vitamin C, you may see overall good results since both components are excellent supplements individually.  You will not, however, be able to experience the potentially exceptional results offered by products using real Liposome Encapsulation Technology.

Liposomal Supplements Must Be Protected from Oxygen.

Liposomes are a natural fit for water-soluble nutrients that are not otherwise bioavailable.  But the process of making stable, quality liposomes is tricky.  Liposomes are sensitive to things like heat and oxygen.  The inherent stability (and in some cases instability), of the phospholipids and each nutrient also play an important role in the overall stability of liposomal products.  Getting all of these things exactly right, then assuring the liposomes and nutrients remain stable throughout the product’s shelf life is key.

One way to enhance the stability of a liposomal product is through uni-dose packaging.  Many of the liposomal products we have analyzed are stored in jars, plastic bottles, or even capsules within bottles.  Opening the bottle to remove the product exposes the remaining product to heat, light and oxygen.  This can be detrimental to the liposomes, and can cause rapid degradation of the nutrients.

Uni-dose packaging protects the product from oxygen until moments before it’s consumed, keeping it safe and effective throughout the shelf-life of the product.

 Three More Signs of a Low-Quality Liposomal Supplement:

  1. Consistency. If the product is very watery, it is most likely due to an insufficient amount of phospholipids or the use of low quality phospholipids.
  2. Uniformity. If the product separates into layers, it is a strong indicator the liposomal mixture is deteriorating. On the other hand, if there are noticeable lumps or the product feels gritty, it is a sign that the nutrients are coming out of the liposomes and forming crystals.
  3. Size. If the volume of the dosage is too small, there are not enough phospholipids and water to make proper liposomes.  For example, 1,000mg of vitamin C and 1,000mg of phospholipids, along with the necessary amount of water for proper liposome formation, will fill a teaspoon (5mL).  It is not likely this amount of material could fit into one or even two large-sized capsules.

The Bottom Line

There are a plethora of liposomal supplements to choose from.  Some are great, many are not.  The key is finding the liposomal supplements that work best for you – from a company you can trust. LivOn Labs offers a 100% Lifetime Satisfaction Guarantee so you can try the Lypo-Spheric™ products for yourself.  If you are not satisfied, at any time, return the unused portion – or even the empty carton – and we will refund every penny you paid.

IV Vitamin Therapy Shortage and Alternatives

iv vitamin c therapy

Celebrities have been feeling the heat from the public for depleting our nation’s supply of IV vitamins.

Notable names such as Simon Cowell and Madonna have been linked to these nutrient-rich drips that make you feel and look younger. The fad has taken Hollywood by storm and the drips are now becoming popular for their restorative properties including being used as a hangover cure. Pop singer, Rhianna, even went as far as posting a picture getting treatment via her Twitter account.

Rhianna twitter IV Drip Why are people outraged about this IV vitamin therapy?

The companies that supply IV ingredients to hospitals are selling the same ingredients to private clinics. Where the problem lies is that there is no centralized database that can direct these precious treatments to the people that need them most. Hospitals are struggling to keep up with demand and as a result many are at risk, including premature infants who rely on vitamin supplements to keep them alive and healthy.

“It’s appalling that we are sacrificing the health of our babies for beauty, energy, and hangover relief,” clinical pharmacist Steve Plogsted, who chairs the drug-shortage task force of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition told the Washingtonian. “We’ve got babies’ lives hanging in the balance while we’re worried about getting through a hangover.”

According to the “Washingtonian”, at least 15 people have died.

Last week, the manufacturer of the most-used adult and pediatric IV multi-vitamin informed health systems that its product—which contains B and C vitamins, among others—is now in shortage. Medical professionals say that, as a result, intravenous B and C vitamins now may be in danger of also going into shortage. In the 1990s, a multi-vitamin shortage led to a widespread thiamin (vitamin B-1) deficiency that caused several deaths.

Amid this public-health crisis, private clinics around the country are using high doses of intravenous B and C vitamins, and other nutrients that are in shortage, for nonmedical purposes. In some cases, clinics are taking nutrients out of the same limited pool that supplies hospitals and home health-care agencies. In other cases, facilities are injecting clients with nutrients from sources that don’t meet hospital safety standards.

Hospitals are competing with other businesses for the same resources, one such business called Hangover Heaven, is a Las Vegas based company that operates buses equipped with as many as 15 IVs to help people after a long night of binge drinking. The problem isn’t with these businesses or private clinics that offer these expensive treatments, the problem lies with how these valuable resources are distributed.

IV Vitamin Therapy

IVs are typically administered in private clinics or physicians offices for 30 to 60 minutes. Another great way to take high dose vitamin C is LivOn Labs Lypo-Spheric supplements. Using liposome encapsulated technology, LivOn Labs’ supplements are able to get straight into your bloodstream without needles.

When all of a nutrient is absorbed into the bloodstream, as in a direct intravenous injection, the bioavailability is 100%. If only a quarter of an ingested nutrient is absorbed, the bioavailability is 25%. Of course, bioavailability also depends on and is limited by other factors such as declining health status, advancing age, and the presence of other substances that compete for absorption.

In one study with non-liposome-encapsulated vitamin C, 19 mg of a 20 mg oral dose entered the bloodstream — a bioavailability of 98%. As the dose size increased beyond 30 mg, the bioavailability decreased drastically. They reported that a dose of 12,000 mg produced a maximum bioavailability of 16%! Liposomal lypo spheric bioavailability

Liposome encapsulation overcomes all these bioavailability and cellular uptake restrictions because liposomes, due to their size and composition, are able to passively absorb through the intestinal wall and through cellular membranes. As a result, liposome-encapsulated nutrients (like Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C) provide a greatly enhanced bioavailability (delivery into the bloodstream) and greatly improved delivery into individual cells.

Pure & Powerful… Lypo-Spheric Supplements

What makes Lypo-Spheric™ products unique? Each Lypo-Spheric™ product is formulated with one goal in mind: to provide you with effective doses of nutrients without the use of binders, fillers, artificial colors or artificial flavors.

The nutrient-filled liposomes in each Lypo-Spheric™ product are small enough – and smart enough – to bypass the body’s restrictive nutrient transport system, and quickly pass through the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. Within minutes of taking a Lypo-Spheric™ product, millions of liposomes will start to move from your bloodstream and into your cells – intact, and ready to work.

Our single-dose packaging protects the product from additional oxygen and moisture, which keeps your product fresh.

LivOn Labs’ products are sugar free, caffeine free, dairy free, meat free and gluten free.

We source ingredients from all over the world so we can use high-potency, non-GMO ingredients from natural sources whenever possible. We now guarantee that our Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C, Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA and Lypo-Spheric™ GSH are 100% non-GMO.


The shelf life on the majority of our nutritional supplements is 12-18 months. To extend the shelf life we recommend refrigeration for maximum effectiveness. Do not freeze or place the products in direct sunlight for extended periods of time.